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Thursday, January 15, 2009

Last Pandyas

The Last Pandyas

We have a little information about the last Pandyas. After their defeat by the Muslim invaders, they ruled from out of Madurai, their ancient capital. Some of the information we got from Pudukottai Plates.

1. Sadayavarman Parakrama Pandiyan I – (1357 AD)

It’s said that he ruled for 23 years
2. Parakrama Pandiyan – (1384 AD to 1415 AD)
3. Sadayavarman Kulasekara Pandian I - (1395 AD)

4. Sadayavarman Vikrama Pandian – (1401 AD to 1422 AD).
Pandiyan ruler who ruled during the same period.
5. Sadayavarman Parakrama Pandian II - (1422 AD to 1463 AD)
He ruled during the reign of Devaraya II. He died in 1463AD.
6. Sadayavarman Kulasekara Pandian II - (1430 AD to 1474 AD)
7. Parakrama Veera Pandiya - (1468 AD)
Started to rule and shared the rule with his father.
8. Sadayavarman Kulasekara Pandian III - (1480 AD to 1507 AD)
This Pandiyan was defeated by Narasa Nayaka when he tried to conquer Madurai in 1479. Till 1479 AD
the Pandiyans were ruling as independent rulers. After 1479 defeat the Pandiyans were reduced to feudatory rulers
under Vijayanagara rulers.
9. Chandrasekara Pandian - (1502 AD).
He ruled during Krishna Devaraya period. The place he ruled was called Chandrasekara Pandiya Mandalam.

Through Pudukottai plates we hear of 2 Pandiyans Abirama Parakrama Pandiyan and AGAVARAMAN.
Thenkasi and Kayathar Pandians
Sadayavarman Srivallaba Pandiyan son of Agavaraman ruled the areas of Shenkottai, SankaranKovil,

SriVilliputhur with THENKASI as the capital.
11. Vettum perumal Raja who ruled the some areas of Tirunelveli, Kovilpatti and SriVaikundam regions with
KAYATHAR as his capital.

Both of them are relatives but lacked understanding. In a battle Vettum Perumal Raja (Kayathar Pandian) was defeated by Sadayavarman Srivallaba Pandiyan (Thenkasi Pandiyan). During Sadayavarman Srivallaba Pandiyan rule Achutha Raya became the Vijayanagara king and he appointed Vishwanatha Nayak as his mandala mudali.

Again we hear of 2 Pandiyans. They were the sons of Abirama Parakrama Pandiyan. They were
12. Sadayavarman Parakrama Kulasekara Pandiyan - (1543AD)
13. Nelveli Maran - (1552AD to 1564AD)

14. Sadayavarman Adhiveerarama Pandiyan (1564AD to 1604 AD)
His son – Sokkar. His brother - Vallabar
His uncle's son - Varathungarama Pandiyan

15. Varathungarama Pandian - (1588AD)
Started ruling some regions with Karivalamvantha Nallur
16. Varaguna Rama Kulasekara Pandiyan - (1613 AD)
He did a yaga in 1615 AD and came to be known as Kulasekara Somasriyar.
17. Adigal Perumal Vela -Varaguna Rama Kulasekaradevar.
He is the last ruler of the Pandiyan dynasty. He ruled till the saka period 1675 that is equivalent to 1753 AD.

Thursday, December 4, 2008

Ancient Pandian Kingdom

The Pandyan was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. The Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country until end of the 15th century. They initially ruled from Korkai, a sea port on the southern most tip of the Indian peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Fish was the royal emblem of the Pandyas.
The early Pandyan dynasty of the Sangam literature went into obscurity during the invasion of the Kalabhras. The dynasty revived under Kadungon Pandyan in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. The Pandyas allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Cheras in harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century.

Early Pandyas
The following is a partial list of Pandyan emperors who ruled during the Sangam age:

Nedunj Cheliyan I ( Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan )
Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi
Nedunj Cheliyan II ( Pasumpun Pandiyan)
Nan Maran
Nedunj Cheliyan III ( Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan )
Maran Valudi
Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan
Ukkirap Peruvaluthi

First Empire
After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century defeating the Kalabhras. The following is a chronological list of the Pandya emperors is based on an inscription found on the Vaigai riverbeds.

Kadungon (560 AD - 590 AD)
Maravarman Avani Culamani (590 AD - 620 AD)
Cezhiyan Cendan (620 AD - 640 AD)
Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran (640 AD - 674 AD)
Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran (675 AD - 730 AD)
Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasinga (730 AD - 765 AD)
Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (765 AD - 790 AD)
Rasasingan II (790 AD - 800 AD)
Varagunan I (800 AD - 830 AD)
Sirmara Srivallabha (830 AD - 862 AD)
Varaguna II (862 AD - 880 AD)
Parantaka Viranarayana (862 AD - 905 AD)
Rajasima Pandian II (905 AD - 920 AD)
The Cholas defeated the Pandian ruler, Rajasima Pandian II. It was the end of the first Pandyan Empire.

Under the Cholas
The Chola domination of the Tamil country began in earnest during the reign of Parantaka Chola II. Chola armies led by Aditya Karikala, son of Parantaka Chola II defeated Vira Pandya I in battle. The Pandyas were assisted by the Sinhalese forces of Mahinda IV. Pandyas were driven out of their territories and had to seek refuge in the island of Sri Lanka. This was the start of the long exile of the Pandyas.

The following list gives the names of the Pandya kings who were active during the 10th and the first half of 11th century. It is difficult to give their date of accession and duration of their rule. Nevertheless their presence in the southern country require recognition.

Sundara Pandya I
Vira Pandya I (946 AD - 966 AD)
Vira Pandya II
Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa

Amarabhujanga Pandian was defeated and killed by The Great Rajaraja Chola I and the entire pandian kingdom was replaced by the series of Chola viceroys with the title Chola Pandyas. The following list gives the names of the Chola viceroys who ruled from Madurai from 1020 AD.

Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandya
Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandya
Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandya
Jatavarman Chola Pandya
Srivallabha Manakulachala (1101 - 1124)
Maaravaramban Seervallaban (1132 - 1161)
Parakrama Pandiyan (1161 - 1162)
Kulasekara Pandyan III
Vira Pandyan III
Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175 - 1180)

Pandya Revival
The 13th century is the greatest period in the history of the Pandyan Empire. Their power reached its zenith under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in the middle of the 13th century. Kulothunga III made Vikrama Pandian as the ruler to the Pandya kingdom.

Vikrama Pandian
Jatavarman Kulesekara Pandian I (1190 AD - 1210 AD) - Son of Vikrama Pandian
Maravarman Sundara Pandya (1216 - 1238) - Brother of Jatavarman Kulesekara Pandian
Sundaravaramban Kulasekaran II (1238 - 1240)
Maaravaramban Sundara Pandiyan II (1241 - 1251)
Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251 - 1268)
Maaravaramban Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268 - 1308)
Sundara Pandyan IV (1309 - 1327)
Vira Pandyan IV (1309 - 1345)
War of success among the Pandya heir apparent made the Muslim rulers to invade Pandya kingdom. Malik Kafur invaded and carried away as much loote as possible. The whole Pandya country became part of Muslim empire. The second Pandya rule which lasted for 155 years marked a significant land mark in the history of Tamil country. During the period of second Pandya rule the glory of the Pandyas expanded to not only to north India but also to Srilanka.