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Thursday, January 15, 2009

Last Pandyas

The Last Pandyas

We have a little information about the last Pandyas. After their defeat by the Muslim invaders, they ruled from out of Madurai, their ancient capital. Some of the information we got from Pudukottai Plates.

1. Sadayavarman Parakrama Pandiyan I – (1357 AD)

It’s said that he ruled for 23 years
2. Parakrama Pandiyan – (1384 AD to 1415 AD)
3. Sadayavarman Kulasekara Pandian I - (1395 AD)

4. Sadayavarman Vikrama Pandian – (1401 AD to 1422 AD).
Pandiyan ruler who ruled during the same period.
5. Sadayavarman Parakrama Pandian II - (1422 AD to 1463 AD)
He ruled during the reign of Devaraya II. He died in 1463AD.
6. Sadayavarman Kulasekara Pandian II - (1430 AD to 1474 AD)
7. Parakrama Veera Pandiya - (1468 AD)
Started to rule and shared the rule with his father.
8. Sadayavarman Kulasekara Pandian III - (1480 AD to 1507 AD)
This Pandiyan was defeated by Narasa Nayaka when he tried to conquer Madurai in 1479. Till 1479 AD
the Pandiyans were ruling as independent rulers. After 1479 defeat the Pandiyans were reduced to feudatory rulers
under Vijayanagara rulers.
9. Chandrasekara Pandian - (1502 AD).
He ruled during Krishna Devaraya period. The place he ruled was called Chandrasekara Pandiya Mandalam.

Through Pudukottai plates we hear of 2 Pandiyans Abirama Parakrama Pandiyan and AGAVARAMAN.
Thenkasi and Kayathar Pandians
10.
Sadayavarman Srivallaba Pandiyan son of Agavaraman ruled the areas of Shenkottai, SankaranKovil,

SriVilliputhur with THENKASI as the capital.
11. Vettum perumal Raja who ruled the some areas of Tirunelveli, Kovilpatti and SriVaikundam regions with
KAYATHAR as his capital.

Both of them are relatives but lacked understanding. In a battle Vettum Perumal Raja (Kayathar Pandian) was defeated by Sadayavarman Srivallaba Pandiyan (Thenkasi Pandiyan). During Sadayavarman Srivallaba Pandiyan rule Achutha Raya became the Vijayanagara king and he appointed Vishwanatha Nayak as his mandala mudali.

Again we hear of 2 Pandiyans. They were the sons of Abirama Parakrama Pandiyan. They were
12. Sadayavarman Parakrama Kulasekara Pandiyan - (1543AD)
13. Nelveli Maran - (1552AD to 1564AD)

14. Sadayavarman Adhiveerarama Pandiyan (1564AD to 1604 AD)
His son – Sokkar. His brother - Vallabar
His uncle's son - Varathungarama Pandiyan

15. Varathungarama Pandian - (1588AD)
Started ruling some regions with Karivalamvantha Nallur
16. Varaguna Rama Kulasekara Pandiyan - (1613 AD)
He did a yaga in 1615 AD and came to be known as Kulasekara Somasriyar.
17. Adigal Perumal Vela -Varaguna Rama Kulasekaradevar.
He is the last ruler of the Pandiyan dynasty. He ruled till the saka period 1675 that is equivalent to 1753 AD.

9 comments:

Ramjee Nagarajan said...

Any clue which of the above Pandiyas built the Nellaiappar Temple?

Anonymous said...

Nellaiyappar temple was built by Koon Pandiyan alias Nindra Seer Nedumaran alias Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman

Amit Singh said...

I'll take little back from dating's.

It's been said that Kulasekharan Pandya was First of Pandya Kings, his Son was Malayadhwaja & he his daughter was Devi Meenakshi.

Now my question is who was Sarangadhwaja? Was Sarangadhwaja & Malayadhwaja same people (or brothers, though this is not mentioned anywhere, I'm just making a clue). As both names are mentioned in Mahabharata Book 8. Can you highlight some thing about this.

Second question: There is one story that Ravana signed peace treaty with Pandya Kingdom. Now Ramayana & Mahabharata are separated by over 1000s years, how come one King (Kulashekhara, he was first king) survived so long? Is there any glitch which is missing or am I wrong anywhere?
Kindly make it clear, please

VILMEEN KODI said...

BANAS THE NORTHERN COUSINS OF VILLAVAR
Banas are the Northern cousins of Villavar dynasties of Tamil Nadu. While the Villavar dynasties ruled ancient Tamilakam Banas ruled Karnataka Andhra and North India. Banas share the Pandya and Kulasekhara titles with their Villavar cousins.
SUBGROUPS OF VILLAVARS
1) Villavar
2) Vanavar
3) Malayar
And their seagoing cousins
4) Meenavar
The Villavar aristocracy called Nadazhwar are derived from all the four subgroups of Villavars. Madurai Kanchi described the splendour of the palaces of Perumbanar (Villavar). Madurai Kanchi also mentions Santor, the Villavar aristocrats.
The ancient Tamil coins displayed the Hill, Bow and Arrow and Fish insignia of various subgroups of Villavars.
VILLAVAR KINGDOMS
1) Chera (Villavar Vanavar)
2) Chola (Vanavar Villavar Thirayar)
3) Pandya (Maran Vanathirayar Perumbanar Maveli Enathy)

The Villavar Aristocracy had the titles Villavar, Nadalvar(Nadavar Nadar), Santor ( Santar) Panickan or Nadappanickan

BANA DYNASTIES OF KARNATAKA
1) BANA PANDYAS of KADAMBA KINGDOM of Banavasi in Uttara Kannada and its subgroups
a) NURUMBADA PANDYAS of Rattepalli (Rattihalli)
b) SANTARA PANDYAS of Humcha-Hosagunda, Kalasa and Karkala (Pandya Nagari)
c) UCHANGI PANDYAS
d) NOLAMBAVADI PANDYAS

2)ALUPAS (Alupa + Arasu) PANDYAN KINGDOM of Takshina Kannada


BANAS OF ANDHRAPRADESH
Banas of Andhrapradesh and Northern Tamilnadu formed the Bana Kingdom. In Tamil literature they were called as either Banas or Vanar. Sannamur, Kolar and Perumbanappadi were their centres.
The Bana titles were Mahabali, Banajiga and Balija

NORTHERN INDIA
In the North India each state has Banpur (Bhanpur Banandavghar) from where Banas ruled. Banas could be of Dravidian stock.
PANDYAS OF MATHURA
Megasthenes around 260 BC wrote about a Pandyan Kingdom at Mathura (Vada Mathurai) at the banks of Yamuna and they were relatives of PANDION OF MODURA (Madura).
PANDYAS OF TIKAMGARH
Tikamgarh was ruled by Bana kings in the ancient times. Bana kings of Tikamgarh ruled with the title Pandyas of Tikamgarh. Kundeshwar was the captial of the Bana Pandyas.
Bagwar Rajputs emerge from the Pandyas of Tikamgarh.

VILMEEN KODI said...

BANA SANTARA PANDYAS OF BANAVASI
The Titles of Banas of Karnataka
Bana Billava (Villavar)
Nadavara Nador ( Nadalvar, Nadar)
Santara (Santor, Santar)
Alva (Alvar)


Banavasi Kingdom ruled the Uttara Kannada the areas of South of Goa in ancient times it was called Gokarna.
SANTARA PANDYA KINGDOM
Santara Kingdom was founded by a Prince from the Mathura Kingdom called Jindaditta at 690 ad. Santaras ruled from Santalige in Banavasi. Santara rulers were Jains but in the late 15th century they had leanings towards Veera Shaiva sect of Hinduism. Santaras ruled from Billeswar hill at Humcha. Channa Giri near Agastya Giri was another important city.
897 VIKRAMA SANTARA 1 built a Jain temple for BAHUBALI at Guddada Basti.
1147 VIKRAMA SANTARA 11
1062 Trilokyamalla VIRA SANTARA built a Jain temple for Parsvanatha and Padmavathi, Jain deities at
Hombuja.
1077 NANNI SANTARADEVA
1110 BHUJABALA SANTARA
1160 SANTARA JAGADEVA 1 defeated Kadamba Banavasi kingdom

SANTARA DYNASTY SHIFTED TO KALASA AND KARKALA (PANDYA NAGARI)
In 1209 Facing opposition Santaras shifted their kingdom from Humcha to kalasa in Chikmagalore district and later at 14th century to Karkala in South Kanara. Karkalas old name was PANDYA NAGARI. They were called as SANTARA VEERA PANDYAS and after their conversion to Hinduism they adopted the title Bhairarasa Odeyar (Wodiyar Udayar). Some of the old Santaras of Humcha still ruled Humcha until 1320 ad.
1300 SANTARA VEERA PANDYA built Jain Basadis at Karkala.
1432 SANTARA VEERA PANDYA BHAIRARASA WODEYAR
at the insistence of his Guru Lalitakeerti the pontiff of Karkala Jaina Math installed a large statue of BAHUBALI (Gomatheswara) on the rocky hill of Karkala. He is also the most famous Santara Pandyan dynasty ruler.
1457 SANTARA ABINAVA PANDYA
1545 SANTARA PANDYA VI
1586 END OF SANTARA DYNASTY when Keladi Venkatappa Nayaka defeated the last Santara Pandya ruler of Karkala.



BANAVASI
1065 MALEYA PANDYA A Vira Gal indicates Billaya the senior General of Banavasi Nadu.
1075 KADAMBA SANTAYYA DEVA

NURUMBADA PANDYA
1168 VIJAYA PANDYA GARUNDA PANDYA
1187 BUJHABALA PANDYA
1188 VIRA PANDYA JAGADEVA PANDYA and VIJAYA PANDYA

UCHANGI PANDYAS
1108 TRIBHUVANAMALLA PANDYA
Uchangi Pandya dynasty came to an end when Hoysala Ballala invaded and defeated its last ruler in 1207 ad.


NOLAMABAVADI PANDYA
1178 TO 1184 VIJAYA PANDYA

NADAVARA (NADAVARA NADOR TORKE NADOR)
Nadavara were Kshatriya aristocracy who descended from Bana Kingdoms of Karnataka. Nadavara shifted their loyalty to Vijayanagar kingdom leading to the fall of Bana-Pandya kingdoms of Uttara Kannada. The Nadavaras of Uttara Kannada descend from the Kadamba, Bana Pandyas of Nurumbada and the Santara Pandyan Kingdoms. Nadavara had been Jains and many were converted to Hinduism in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Northern Nadavara of Uttara kannada are Patriarchal while their southern counterparts Nadavaras of Alupas Pandyan kingdom were Matriarchal. The Kannada speaking Nadavara of Mangalore have become subcastes of Naga Bunts and have adopted Matriarchy

VILMEEN KODI said...

ALUPAS PANDYAN KINGDOM
Alupas Pandyan emblem was double fish. King was called Banapperumal. They shared the Kulasekhara title of Villavars. Nadavar of Alupas Pandyan kingdom mixed with the slave warriors called Bunts (Buntaru) who were of Naga stock brought from Ahichatra in Nepal (Now in Uttarkhand Rampur). The Kannada speaking Nadavara are now a subcaste of Matriarchal Bunts who speak Tulu. Billavas role in laterday alupas Pandyan kingdom is not clear. The Naga Bunts were originally brought by Kadamba king Mayuravarma who is credited with bringing Nagas and Aryans to Kadamba kingdom in 345 AD. In the latedays Nagas migrated to Alupas Kingdom. The Naga mixed Banas would attack their Villavar cousins eventually leading to downfall of both dynasties.
ALUPAS INVASION OF KERALA
Keralolpathi mentions a Banapperumal attacking Kerala with a 350000 strong Nair army. Thus the Tamil Later Chera Villavar kingdom came to an end in 1102 after the attack of Banapperumal ( Bhanu Vikrama Kulasekharapperumal according to Kerala legends). Kulasekhara (1102-1120 ad ) might have ruled from Valarpattinam near Kannur. His successor who was the brother of Tulu king Kaviraja simhan (Kavi Alupendra) declared himself to be Cheraman Perumal thus establishing a short lived Tulu Chera dynasty. Various Tulu Bunt subcastes such as Nayara Menava Kuruba and Samantha became prominent after this attack. The last (Tulu) Cheraman Perumal(1120-1156) faced opposition from his own army when he executed his trusted general Pada Mala Nair.

The Tulu Cheraman Perumal or Banapperumal left for Arabia after dividing the Chera country among his supporters. Samanthas a Bunt subgroup who were of Naga stock and originally from Ahichatra became rulers of Kerala. Udayavarman Kolathiri a Samantha Kshatriya of Naga stock was crowned by the leaving Tulu Cheraman Perumal with the title Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal.
Pandyans of Madurai subjucated Kerala and ruled until 1310 but after that period the Bunt subgroups the Samanthas, Nayara, Menava and Kuruba became dominant in Kerala with Delhi support. Four Tulu Samantha rulers were appointed in Kerala after Malik Kafurs invasion in 1310. Kolathiri of Kannur, Samuthiri of Kozhikode, Perumbadappu of Kochi, and Attingal Queen in Travancore Kindgom
The Portuguese Dutch and British further protected theTulu-Nepalese Samantha dynasties of Kerala by providing them with Spice money and weapons. Europeans also encouraged their Barbaric customs.
CHRISTIAN PANICKERS
The last Vilarvattom dynasty with its Panicker martial trainers joined the Portuguese eventually loosing their identity. In the mid 15th century the Vilarvattom king ruling over Chendmangalam who had become a Christian sent a letter to Pope through Edessa which was forwarded to Portuguese king (Lisbon papers). But Portuguese never bothered to reinstall them as rulers. Vallikada Panickers, a dynasty of Generals led the Portuguese and Dutch armies. Panikkan or Panikkanadan was a Villavar title of Martial arts and War elephant trainers. Vlllikada Panickers, Maranadu Panickers, Kumbanadu Panickers, Mylottu Panickers are important Christian Panickers. Rattepalli originally a Bana title is owned by some Christian Panickers of Kerala.

SRILANKAN CHERAS
Alaga Kon a Chera prince from Vanjipura (Kodungaloor) migrated to Sri Lanka who built the Jeyavardhanapura Kotte near Colombo and started a new dynasty after 1310. Sadasiva Panickan an elephant trainer was a migrant from Kerala married the sister of king Parakrama Bahu of Kotte. Sadasiva Panickars son was Sempaha perumal (1452) alias Sapumal Kumarayya who defeated and ruled over Northern Arya Chakravarthi Kingdom and eventually became king of Kotte (Colombo) with title Buveneka Bahu VI.

VILMEEN KODI said...

CHERA PANDYA TITLES MISUSED BY SAMANTHAS

The Samantha rulers of Kerala installed after the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 were not related to the Earlier Chera Villavar rulers.
Villavar Cheras were Tamils
Samantha are Bunt subgroup of Tulunadu. Bunts in turn were migrants from Ahichatra in Nepal in 345 a.d.
Tamil Chera dynasty promoted Tamil. Chera wrote with Vattezuthu and Kolezhuthu ancient forms of Tamil.
The Samanthas wrote with Tigalari script a form of Tulu language. Modern Malayalam is written with Tigalari script. Their language contained Prakrit, Sanskrit words because of their Northern origin.
Chera Kings had Tamil titles such as Villavar Kon Vanavar Kon Malayar Kon
Samantha Kings never had Tamil titles. They added Birth star as a prefix to their names. Eg Moolam Thirunal Anizham Thirunal etc
Villavar Kings were Patrilnieal
Samanthas were Matrilineal
Villavars had Tamil culture
Samanthas had Tulu-Nepalese culture
Villavar Kings married from Villavar dynasties and other Kshatriya dynasties
Samantha Queens courted in a brief ceremony called Kootirupu with Nambuthiriis

The Tulu-Nepalese dynasty of Samantha rulers though of Naga stock and ethnically different from Villavar continued to use Chera and Pandyan titles such as Kulasekhara Perumal Villavar and Vanchibala along with the Delhi Sulthante given title Shamsher Jung.
Nambuthiris claim descent from Parasu Raman (Bhargava Raman) a Brahmin warrior who killed all the Kshatriyas. Parasu Raman belonged to the Chedi Kingdom, the presentday Bundelkhand (Uttarpradesh, Madhyapradesh). Nambuthhiris claim that they belong to the Bhargava Kulam. The Matriarchal Samantha-Nambuthiri dynasties continue to claim that they descend from Bhargava Kulam as well as Pandyas and Cheras.



THE BANA VILLAVAR RIVALRY
The Banas of Uttara Kannada, the NADAVARA joined the Vijayanagara armies.
The Alupas Pandyas of Dakshina Kingdom merged with Nagas eventually attacking Chera Kingdom
The Banas of Andhrapradesh and Perumbanappadi eventually merged with Naickers of Naga stock. The Balija Naickers attacked the Chola and Pandyan kingdoms leading to fall of all the Villavar kingdoms.
Balija-Nayak Kingdoms were installed in Tamil Nadu in the place of Chola Pandyan Kingdoms. Briefly Banas were installed at Madurai as rulers by the Vijayanagara Naiks in the 15th century. After this Banas also disappear from history.

VILMEEN KODI said...

PANDYAN PRINCIPALITIES OF KERALA

Southern Kerala had many Pandyan principalities. Southern Kerala up to Kottayam was ruled by the Pandyans.

Pliny the elder in his NATURAL HISTORY written in 79 AD mentions the King Pandion who ruled from Madurai had a port at Purakkad near Ambalapuzha.

The king of Muziris, at the date of publication, was Caelobothras. There is another more serviceable port, belonging to the Neacyndi tribe, called Porakad; this is where king Pandion reigned, his capital being a town in the interior a long way from the port, called Madura; while the district from which pepper is conveyed to Becare in canoes made of hollowed tree-trunks is called Cottonara.

Ambalapuzha
Niranam
Pandalam
Poonjar
Maranadu
are few of the Pandian principalities which existed even after the advent of LATER CHERA DYNASTY OF VILLAVARS.

After the fall of Tamil dynasties in 1310 after the Delhi Sulthanate attack by Malik Kafur Kolathiri Kingdom of Tulu-Nepalese Samanthas became the most powerful kingdom and Kerala. Nambudiris and Nagas who migrated from Ahichatra became powerful in Kerala making the Dravidian Villavar people to a lower stratum.

Various sub groups of Tulunadus Bunt community Samantha, Nayara, Menava, Kuruba etc became the lords of Kerala. Because of their origin at Ahichatra Madasthana (Hill place) they called themselves Madambi or Mada Nambi.

Matriarchy and Polyandry the Naga customs of Nepal and Uttarkhand came to be practised in Kerala.

Some of the former territories were occupied by Tulu Pandyan dynasty of Alupas who practice Matriarchy. Other Pandyan principalities in Kerala were occupied by Nambuthiri-Samantha dynasties.

Nambuthiris claim descent from Sage Parasurama who was also called Bhargava Raman. Brahmin Nambuthiris who occupied the Pandyan principalities as rulers claim that they are descendents of Pandyas and also Pandyas belong to North Indian Bhargava Kulam.

But Pandyas belonged to the Villavar-Nadalavar dynasties and of Dravidian origin.

Ramanan Kannan said...

The Thiyya people of Kerala say that their system was matriarchical from times immemorial.It was the custom of Nambudiris to allow only the eldest son of a family to be married till 1933.Some people say that the Nair community originated from the union of some thiyyas with Nambudiris.